Recomendações de Artigos e Textos


  • Hobbs, R.J. & Yates, C.J. 2003. Impacts of ecosystem fragmentation on plant populations: generalising the idiosyncraticAustralian Journal of Botany 51: 471–488.
  • ARROYO-RODRÍGUEZ, V., PINEDA, E., ESCOBAR, F. and BENÍTEZ-MALVIDO, J. (2009), Value of Small Patches in the Conservation of Plant-Species Diversity in Highly Fragmented RainforestConservation Biology, 23: 729–739. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01120.x
  • Laurance,W.F.; Lovejoy, T.;Vasconcelos, H.L.; Bruna, E.M.; Didham, R.K.; Stouffer, P.; Gascon, C.; Bierregaard, R.; Laurance, S. and Sampaio, E. 2002.Ecosystem decay of Amazonian forest fragments, a 22-year investigation.Conserv. Biol. 16: 605-618.
  • Bierregaard, R.O.; Jr.; Lovejoy, T.E.; Kapos, V.; Santos, A.A. and Hutchings, R.W. 1992. The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments.Bioscience 42: 859 – 866.
  • Murcia, C. 1995. Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol10: 58 – 62. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88977-6.
  • Ribeiro, C.M.; Metzger J.P.; Martensen A. C.; Ponzoni F.J. and Hirota M.M. 2009.The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: How much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 142: 1141–1153. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.021
  • LAURANCE, W. F. 2000. Do edge effects occur over large spatial scales? Trends in Ecological Evolution15:134-135.
  • LEGENDRE, P. & FORTIN, M.J. 1989. Spatial pattern and ecological analysis.Vegetatio. 80: 107-138.
  • MURCIA, C. 1995. Edge eects in fragmented forests: implication on for conservation.  Tree1058-62.
  • SAUNDERS, DA., HOBBS, RJ. and MARGULES, CR., 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation; a review. Conservation Biology. 5:18-32.
  • MARCELO TABARELLI & CLAUDE GASCON. Lições da pesquisa sobre fragmentação: aperfeiçoando políticas e diretrizes de manejo para a conservação da biodiversidade. MEGADIVERSIDADE 1: 181-188.

Teoria da ecologia


  • Austin, M. P. 1999. A silent clash of paradigms: some inconsistencies in community ecology. Oikos 86: 170-178.
  • Berryman, A. A. 2003. On principles, laws and theories in population ecology. Oikos 103:95–701.
  • Brown, J. H., J. F. Gillooly, A. P. Allen, V. M. Savage, and G. B. West. 2004. Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85:771–1789.
  • Cherrett, J. M. 1988. Ecological concepts—The results of the survey of members’ views. Bulletin of the British Ecological Society 19:80–82.
  • Colyvan, M., and L. R. Ginzburg. 2003. Laws of nature and laws of ecology. Oikos 101:649–653.
  • Ginzburg, L. R., and C. X. J. Jensen. 2004. Rules of thumb for judging ecological theories. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:212–126.
  • Dodds, W. K. 2009. Laws, theories, and patterns in ecology. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA.
  • Hubbell, S. P. 2006. Neutral theory and the evolution of ecological equivalence. Ecology 87:1387–1398.
  • Jordan, R., F. Singer, J. Vaughan, and A. Berkowitz. 2009. What should every citizen know about ecology? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:495–500.
  • Lange, M. 2005. Ecological laws: what they would be and why would they matter? Oikos 110:294–403.
  • Lawton, J. H. 1999. Are there general laws in ecology? Oikos 84:177–192.
  • Lockwood, D. R. 2007. Ecology is not rocket science. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 9:2–11.
  • Margalef, R. 1963. On certain unifying principles in ecology. American Naturalist 97:357–374.
  • Murray, B. M. 2000. Universal laws and predictive theory in ecology and evolution. Oikos 80:403–408.
  • O’Connor, R. J. 2000. Why ecology lags behind biology. Scientist 14: 35.
  • O’Hara, R. B. 2005. The anarchists guide to ecological theory. Or, we don’t need no stinkin’ laws. Oikos 110:390–393.
  • Scheiner, S. M., and M. R. Willig. 2008. A general theory of ecology. Theoretical Ecology 1:21–28.
  • Swihart, R. K., Dunning, J. B. and Waser, P. M. 2002. Gray matters in ecology: dynamics of pattern, process, and scientific progress. Bull. ESA 83: 149-155.
  • Turchin, P. 2003. Does population ecology have general laws? Oikos 94:17–26.
  • Wilkinson, D. M. 1998. Fragments of an entangled bank: do ecologists study most of ecology? Oikos 82: 393-394.
  • Vepsalainen, K., and J. R. Spence. 2000. Generalization in ecology and evolutionary biology: from hypothesis to paradigm. Biology and Philosophy 15:211–238.



Ecologia Geral

  • Agrawal, A.A. et al. (2007) Filling key gaps in population and community ecology.Front. Ecol. Environ.5, 145–152.
  • Cavender-Bares, J., K. H. Kozak, P. V. A. Fine, and S. W. Kembel. 2009. The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology. Ecology Letters 12:693–715.
  • Fowler, M.S. (2009) Density dependent dispersal decisions and the Allee effect. Oikos 118, 604–614
  • Laakso, J., Kaitala, V. and Ranta, E. 2001. How does environmental variation translate into biological processes? Oikos 92: 119-122.
  • Simberloff D. 2004. Community ecology: is it time to move on? Am Nat. 163(6): 787-99.
  • Vellend, M. (2010). Conceptual synthesis in community ecology. Q. Rev. Biol., 85, 183–206.
  • Wiens, J. J., and M. J. Donoghue. 2004. Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:639–644.


Conflito entre os ecólogos empiristas e teóricos


História da ecologia


  • Barbour, M. G. 1995. Ecological fragmentation in the fifties. Pages 75–90 in W. Cronon, editor. Un-common ground: toward invent-ing nature. (Abridged in ESA Bul-letin  77:44–51. 1996) Norton, New York, New York, USA.
  • Nicolson, M. 1988. No longer a stranger? A decade in the history of ecology. History of Science 26:183–200.
  • Noy-Meir, I., and E. van der Maarel. 1987. Relations between community theory and community analysis in vegetation science: some historical perspectives. Vegetatio 69:5–15.


  • Altermatt, al.(2008) Climate change affects colonization dynamics in a metacommunity of three Daphnia species. Global Change Biol.14, 1209–1220
  • Amarasekare, al.(2004)Mechanisms of coexistence in competitive metacommunities.Am. Nat.164, 310–326
  • Cottenie, K. (2005) Integrating environmental and spatial processes in ecological community dynamics.Ecol. Lett.8, 1175–1182
  • Cadotte, M.W. (2006) Metacommunity influences on community richness at multiple spatial scales: a microcosm experiment.Ecology 87, 1008–1016
  • Calcagno, V. et al. (2006) Coexistence in a metacommunity: the competition–colonization trade-off is not dead.Ecol. Lett.9, 897–907
  • Cottenie, K. et al. (2003) Zooplankton metacommunity structure: regional vs. local processes in highly interconnected ponds.Ecology 84, 991–1000
  • Driscoll, D.A. (2008) The frequency of metapopulations, metacommunities and nestedness in a fragmented landscape. Oikos 117, 297–309
  • Ellis, A.M. et al. 2006. Evaluating the long-term metacommunity dynamics of tree hole mosquitoes. Ecology 87: 2582–2590.
  • Forster, M.A. and Warton, D.I. (2007) A metacommunity-scale comparison of species–abundance distribution models for plant communities of eastern Australia.Ecography30, 449–458
  • Hunt, J. andBonsall, M.B. (2009) The effects of colonization, extinction and competition on co-existence in metacommunities.J. Anim. Ecol. 78, 866–879
  • Jacobson, B. and Peres-Neto, P.R. (2010) Quantifying and disentangling dispersal in metacommunities: how close have we come? How far is there to go?Landscape Ecol.25, 495–507
  • Kneitel J.M., and T.E. Miller. 2004. Dispersal Rates Affect Species Composition in Metacommunities of Sarracenia purpurea Inquilines. The American Naturalist 126: 165-172.
  • Leibold, al.(2004) The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecol. Lett.7, 601–613
  • Leibold, al.(2010) Metacommunity phylogenetics: separating the roles of environmental filters and historical biogeography. Ecol. Lett.13, 1290–1299
  • Leibold,M.A. and Mikkelson, G.M. (2002) Coherence, species turnover, and boundary clumping: elements of meta-community structure.Oikos 97, 237–250
  • Loeuille, N. and Leibold, M.A. (2008) Evolution in metacommunities: on the relative importance of species sorting and monopolization in structuring communities.Am. Nat.171, 788–799
  • Logue J.B. et al. 2011. Empirical approaches to metacommunities: a review and comparison with theory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 482-492.
  • Louette G. and L. De Meester. 2005. High Dispersal Capacity of Cladoceran Zooplankton in Newly Founded Communities. 86: 353-359.
  • Mouquet, N. and Loreau, M. (2002) Coexistence in metacommunities: the regional similarity hypothesis.Am. Nat.159, 420–426
  • Muneepeerakul, R. et al. (2008) Neutral metacommunity models predict fish diversity patterns in Mississippi–Missouri basin.Nature 453, U220–U229
  • Ng, al. (2009) Hierarchical zooplankton metacommunities: distinguishing between high and limiting dispersal mechanisms. Hydrobiologia 619, 133–143
  • Pillar, V.D. andDuarte, L.D.S. (2010) A framework formetacommunity analysis of phylogenetic structure.Ecol. Lett.13, 587–596
  • Presley, S.J. et al. (2010) A comprehensive framework for the evaluation of metacommunity structure.Oikos119, 908–917
  • Urban, M.C. and De Meester, L. (2009) Community monopolization: local adaptation enhances priority effects in an evolving metacommunity.Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci.276, 4129–4138
  • Urban, M.C. and Skelly, D.K. (2006) Evolving metacommunities: toward an evolutionary perspective on metacommunities. Ecology 87, 1616–1626
  • Urban, al.(2008) The evolutionary ecology of metacommunities. Trends Ecol. Evol.23, 311–317
  • Venail, P.A. et al. (2008) Diversity and productivity peak at intermediate dispersal rate in evolving metacommunities. Nature 452, 210–215
  • Venail, P.A. et al. (2010) Dispersal scales up the biodiversity-productivity relationship in an experimental source–sink metacommunity.Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci.277, 2339–2345
  • Warren, P.H. (1996) The effects of between-habitat dispersal rate on protist communities and metacommunities in microcosms at two spatial scales.Oecologia105, 132–140
  • Wilson, D.S. (1992) Complex interactions in metacommunities, with implications for biodiversity and higher levels of selection. Ecology 73: 1984–2000

Teoria do Nicho x Teoria Neutra

  • Smith, T.W. & Lundholm, J.T. (2010). Variation partitioning as a tool to distinguish between niche and neutral processes. Ecography, 33, 648–655.


  • Moore, S. A., T. J. Wallington, R. J. Hobbs, P. R. Ehrlich, C. S. Holling, S. Levin, D. Lindenmayer, C. Pahl-Wostl, H. Possingham, M. G. Turner, and M. Westoby. 2009. Diversity in current ecological thinking: Implications for environmental management. Environmental Management 43:17–27.
  • Wallington, T. J., R. J. Hobbs, and S. A. Moore. 2005. Implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation: A review of the salient issues. Ecology and Society 10:15.

Restauração ecológica

Invasão ecológica


Desenho experimental e estatística

Redação científica





  • D’Avanzo, C. 2003. Application of research on learning to college teaching: ecological examples. BioScience 53:1121–1128.
  • D’Avanzo, C. 2008. Biology concept inventories: overview, status, and next steps. BioScience 58:1079–1085.
  • Dresner, M., and M. Elser. 2008. Enhancing science teachers’ understanding of ecosystem interactions with qualitative conceptual models. Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology 6: Research #1.
  • Gardiner, L. F. 1998. Why we must change: the research evidence. Thought and Action 14:71–88.
  • Grotzer, T. A., and B. B. Basca. 2003. How does grasping the underlying causal structures of ecosystems impact students’ understanding? Journal of Biological Education 38:16–29.
  • Hmelo-Silver, C. E., and R. Azevedo. 2006. Understanding complex systems: Some core challenges. Journal of the Learning Sciences 15:53–61.
  • Jacobson, M. J. 2001. Problem solving, cognition, and complex systems: Differences between experts and novices. Complexity 63:41–49.
  • Knight, J. K., and W. B. Wood. 2005. Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education 4:298–310.
  • Wilensky, U., and M. Resnick. 1999. Thinking in levels: A dynamic systems perspective for exploring complexity. Journal of Science Education and Technology 8:3–19.

Observatório do PNE (Plano Nacional de Educação)

Banco de dados científicos